Stone Mountain has a long and interesting history.

Cherokee, Creek, Muscogee, and earlier Indian tribes lived in the area of Stone Mountain long before it was known as Stone Mountain—as long as eight thousand years ago. They used the name Dome Mountain. White settlers moved in during the early 1800s. A village formed to the mountain's west and became known as New Gibralter, while the mountain was known as Rock Mountain or Stoney Mountain.

The railroad reached the village in the 1830s, which was a boon to both tourism and industry. Andrew Johnson consolidated ownership of the mountain at this time. New Gibraltar was incorporated in 1939 with Johnson as commissioner.

The name of the village was changed to Stone Mountain in 1845-1847. The mountain had become generally known as Stone Mountain and the village was commonly being referred to by the same name, so this name was made official.

Andrew Johnson died in 1852 and the majority of his Stone Mountain holdings were sold to William B. W. Dent the following year for $25,000.

The mountain was sold to Stone Mountain Granite Corporation for $45,400 in 1867.

Southern Granite Company bought the mountain in 1886 for $70,000. The Venable Brothers were among the personnel of this company.

Much of the earlier history of the mountain involved the lucrative and labor-intensive quarrying industry. See Quarry History for more information.

The carving has a long history of its own. See Carving History for details and photos.